Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology Report About Goji berry

Report About Goji berry

Lycium barbarum (goji berry) belongs to Solanaceae deciduous shrub. Its fruit is 1-2 cm long and is bright orange-red ellipsoid berry. It is usually harvested in June-August. Since 4500, Lycium barbarum
(goji berry) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine and functional food in Asian countries. It is widely used in making wine, tea, water, soup and porridge. Fruits, leaves, seedlings and roots of Lycium barbarum L
(goji berry) . can be used as medicine, which is an important component of Chinese medicine formula. Li Shizhen in the Compendium of Materia Medica nourishes the liver and kidney with wolfberry, supplements energy, improves eyesight and other efficacy, it is called the first-class medicine. Nowadays, Lycium barbarum (goji berry) has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. In our country, the first batch of wolfberries listed as both food and medicine have become famous nourishing and therapeutic treasures at home and abroad. Concentrated juice and extract made from Lycium barbarum (goji berry) berries have long been used as ingredients for various soft drinks or alcoholic beverages. The chemical constituents of Lycium barbarum L. are the material basis of its edible and medicinal use. In view of the botanical characteristics of Lycium barbarum L. (goji berry) , the main chemical constituents and biological activities of Lycium barbarum L (goji berry) . were described in detail, and the toxicity of Lycium barbarum L (goji berry) . was discussed in order to provide theoretical reference for the application of Lycium barbarum L (goji berry) .


The fruit of Lycium barbarum (goji berry) plant is Lycium barbarum. CitrusThe botanical name of Chinese wolfberry (Chinese matrimony vine) was given by Swedish botanists Carolus Linnaeus in 1753.

There are about 70 species of Lycium in the world, ranging from temperate zone to Asia.
Temperate zone [4], including North America, South America, South Africa, Eurasia and Australia, China is mainly distributed in the north. The origin of Chinese wolfberry is unknown. Lycium is a family of Solanaceae including tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants and peppers. Lycium species are widely distributed in China. Seven species and three varieties of Lycium have been identified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), mainly distributed in Northwest and North China. More than 10 alternative species and varieties of Lycium L. have been found in the mainland and Hong Kong markets.

Resources of Lycium (goji berry) plants in China

Report About Goji berry

Phytochemical Constituents of Lycium barbarum L.

Polysaccharide

Water-soluble Lycium barbarum (goji berry) is the most studied component in Lycium barbarum fruit.
Polysaccharide (LBP) accounts for 5%-8%[7] of dried fruits. The molecular weight of LBP is
8 ~ 241ku. DEAE Cellulose Ion Exchange for Luo [8-10] et al
Methods Lycium barbarum polysaccharides were isolated and purified by gel permeation chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were analyzed by gel electrophoresis, gas chromatography, amino acid auto analysis, acid hydrolysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), 1D and 2D NMR [11]. It was found that LBP is a complex glycopeptide structure composed of acidic heteropolysaccharides, polypeptides or proteins.

For extracts and products of Lycium barbarum (goji berry) , polysaccharide content is the key to the efficacy of Lycium barbarum. Many bioactive polysaccharides derived from plants and fungi with various immune activities have been found in traditional Chinese medicine.

Report About Goji berry

Carotenoids

The orange-red color of Lycium barbarum (goji berry) fruit is carotenoid, which only accounts for 0.03%~0.5%[16] of the dried fruit. The saponified and unsaponified extracts of Lycium barbarum contain 11 kinds of free carotenoids and 7 kinds of carotene esters. Free carotenoids include beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin. Carotenoid fatty acid esters are mainly zeaxanthin dipalmitate, zeaxanthin Monopalmitate and beta-cryptoxanthin palmitate. The main carotenoids are zeaxanthin in the form of esterification, accounting for the total carotenoids.

Report About Goji berry
Report About Goji berry

Polyphenols

High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector-Mass Spectrometry
Electrospray ionization (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) spectrometry can be used to determine phenolic acids and flavonoids in fruits of Lycium barbarum. Using Vy-
A total of 52 phenolic acids and flavonoids were isolated from dacC18 column. Among the 15 clear compounds, quercetin rhamnoDI-hexoside had the highest mass fraction (438.6 ug/g), followed by quercetin rhamnoDI-hexoside.
Quercetin-3-O-rutin (281.3 ug/g), dicaffeoylquinic acid isomer (250.1 ug/g), chlorogenic acid (237.0 ug/g), quercetin-DI-(rhamno hexoside) (117.5 ug/g), quercetin-
DI-(rhamno) hexose (116.8 ug/g), rutin
(97.7 ug/g), vanillic acid (22.8 ug/g) [20]. Rutin is the main flavonoid in leaves. Rutin, gentinic acid and quercetin in leaves of Lycium barbarum L. were identified by capillary electrophoresis pulsed current detection and far-infrared assisted extraction. Leaves were the most abundant part of rutin (16.03-16.33 mg/g).

The rutin content in wild and cultivated Lycium barbarum fruit was very low (0.09-1.38 mg/g), and the total flavonoids content in cultivated Lycium barbarum leaves was much higher than that in wild Lycium barbarum leaves (17.86 mg/g) [22].

Physiological function

The physiological functions of Lycium barbarum include anti-aging, nerve protection and anti-bone.
Myelosuppression improves sleep quality. Recent randomized clinical studies conducted in the United States and China showed that eating standardized Lycium barbarum juice (GoChi120mL is equivalent to 150g fresh fruit) every day for 14-30 days could enhance the regularity of nerve, cardiovascular, joint, muscle function and gastrointestinal tract without any side effects.

Five groups of studies found that there were significant differences between pre-and post-intervention periods, which were effective in enhancing physical fitness, improving sleep quality, promoting blood circulation, anti-fatigue, improving attention and memory, reducing limb chills and improving spirit.

Preliminary estimates of these effects showed that 63% of the participants improved. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human clinical trials 201 people, the average number of people in each study is about 40. These changes Shanjun was confirmed by meta-analysis


Immunomodulatory effect

Many studies have shown that Lycium barbarum and Lycium barbarum polysaccharide have a lot of immunity.
Epidemic regulation function, including activation of various immune cells [30]. Recent studies in traditional Chinese medicine have shown that Lycium barbarum polysaccharide can enhance cellular immunity and humoral immune response. For example, experimental animals take Lycium barbarum polysaccharide every day
T cells were found at 5-10 mg/kg for 1 week, and the activity of natural killer cells increased. The IgE reaction experiment of Lycium barbarum L. showed that Lycium barbarum L. was used.
Antibodies that actually reduce allergic reactions may be mediated by promoting CD8 + T cells and regulating cytokines.

Cardiovascular benefits
Using in vivo editing patterns to test two hypertensive mice
Results LBP treatment significantly prevented the elevation of blood pressure in 10 kidneys. The aortic rings of rats incubated in vitro were treated with methyl blue or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and LBP. It was found that the contraction amplitude induced by phenylephrine increased.

Antioxidant and anti-aging effects
Many diseases and symptoms are caused by free radical oxidation. Citrus
Fructus Lycii has antioxidant effect. The intake of Lycium barbarum L. increased the antioxidant capacity of serum by nearly 10% under normal conditions. LBP also improves
The brittleness and abnormality of erythrocyte in NIDDM patients make it close to or abnormal.
It can be used as an adjuvant therapy for NIDDM patients.

Eye protection
Carrot-like substances were found in all tissues of the eye.
Prime. The contents of lutein and zeaxanthin were different in the concave and surrounding areas of the retina. The content of lutein was the highest in the surrounding areas, while the content of zeaxanthin was higher in the central fovea. Studies have shown that zeaxanthin and lutein have protective effects on eyes, and they are negatively correlated with senile degenerative macular lesions. This disease occurs in the central macular area of the retina, which is the most sensitive part of visual function. Studies have shown that the posterior retinal macula in the center of the human retina is rich in antioxidant pigments, which are produced by high-density zeaxanthin and lutein.

Lycium barbarum L (goji berry) . is an interesting herb and food with abundant resources.
Nutrients and health effects. The research on functional components of Lycium barbarum L. is one of the hotspots. At present, Lycium barbarum polysaccharide is the most widely studied chemical constituents. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide, as a natural plant polysaccharide, has broad research and market prospects for the study of some difficult clinical diseases and the development of standardized and diversified health food.

Hits: 29

One Response to “

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *